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Codex Borgia

The Codex Borgia - Department of Art and Art History - The University of Texas at Austin

However, the pre-Columbian codices of the Mixtec people of the state of Oaxaca in the southern part of the Republic of Mexico, are known as having geographical and historical content. The place of origin and the linguistic identity of the creators of the codices have been the subject of considerable debate. Depiction of the lower regions, a dwelling place for the dead. Image via library. The Codex Borgia is a Mesoamerican ritual and divinatory document, which was probably written before the Spanish conquest of Mexico, somewhere within what is now southern or western Puebla.

It is difficult to read and interpret this codex the way it was done by ancient Aztec priests. According to one suggested explanation, the codex was rescued from a public burning of " superstitious and idolatrous " books in Mexico, in , by a former member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples Latin: Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione in Rome, responsible for missionary work.

Thus the Codex Borgia ended up in the hands of Cardinal Stefano Borgia in Rome and later, it was acquired by the Vatican Library; the Codex Borgia was digitally scanned and made available to the public. Others have suggested that the codex came to Italy with the exclusion of Jesuits from Spain in The codex, written in very complex pictorial script is made of animal skins folded into 39 sheets.

All but the end sheets are painted on both sides, providing 76 pages.

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The codex is read from right to left. Codex Borgia, pre-Columbian painted manuscript. The Bordia Codex represents both a complex ritual cult associated with the only one town, Cholula and calendar of Mixteca. Like other Mesoamerican cultures, the Mixtec used a day sacred calendar.

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The tonalpohualli in Nahuatl Aztec language, means "count of days" is an Aztec version of this day calendar, used widely in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. The scenes depicted in the codex are painted on both sides and painted over with a white gips och krita gesso. They are read from top to bottom and one must rotate the manuscript 90 degrees in order to view the codex correctly. They apparently show a journey but the complex iconography and the lack of any comparable document have led to a variety of interpretations ranging from an account of actual astronomical and historical events, to the passage of Quetzalcoatl —as a personification of Venus [ citation needed ] —through the underworld, to a "cosmic narrative of creation".

The Borgia Codex: The Bloody History of the Collection

Pages 37 and 38 depict Xolotl holding a Xiuhcoatl or "fire serpent" descending into the underworld with lightning. The sequence apparently ends with a New Fire ceremony, marking the end of one year cycle, and the start of another. Pages 61 through 70 are similar to the first section, showing various day signs winding around scenes of deities. Each of the 10 pages shows 26 day signs. Page 71 depicts Tonatiuh , the sun god, receiving blood from a decapitated bird. Surrounding the scene are the thirteen Birds of the Day , corresponding to each of the thirteen days of a trecena.

Page 72 depicts four deities with day signs connected to parts of their bodies. Each deity is surrounded by a serpent. Page 73 depicts the gods Mictlantecuhtli and Quetzalcoatl seated back to back, similar to page They likewise have day signs attached to various parts of their bodies, and the entire scene is encircled by day signs.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Images of pages 1—8. Images of pages 9— Images of pages 15— Images of pages 18— Images of pages 22— Images of pages 29— Images of pages 47— Images of pages 57— Images of pages 61— Images of pages 71— Milbrath, Susan Austin: University of Texas Press.

Borgia-Codex, Códice Borgia

Boone, Elizabeth Hill Joe R. Brotherston, Gordon Arara: Art and Architecture of the Americas. Archived from the original eJournal online text on Byland New York: Dover. Jansen, Maarten In David Carrasco ed.


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Ancient Mesoamerica. Nowotny, Karl Anton Tlacuilolli: style and contents of the Mexican pictorial manuscripts with a catalog of the Borgia Group. George A. Everett, Jr. Sisson trans.


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