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There the men found a note from Captain Clark, informing them of his intention of waiting for them a few miles below. After reuniting on the Missouri, the Lewis and Clark Expedition, together once more, set out on the final leg of the journey. On August 30 they became soldiers again when Clark, acting on behalf of the recuperating Lewis, berated the unruly Lakotas for breaking the peace with the Mandan tribe. After Clark returned from haranguing the Lakotas, all the men prepared their weapons in case of an attack—an attack that never materialized.
The land now became familiar, almost homelike, to the Corps. They had a happy meeting with the other Lakotas and passed again the sad site of the final resting place of Sergeant Floyd. Sailing by St. Charles, the Corps descended the Mississippi to St. Louis, where it arrived at noon on September 23, , and received a hearty welcome from the whole town.
The long march of Lewis and Clark was over. The 33 members of the Corps of Discovery picked up speed as they headed home. On their journey west, which began near St. Louis in May , the explorers had rowed and pulled their boats upstream on the Missouri River, laboring to cover 10 miles a day. Now, late in the summer of , the wayworn expedition members were heading downstream, sometimes making 75 miles a day. They had had their fill of grand adventure and longed to see their loved ones again.
In canoes and hollowed-out logs called pirogues, Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark and their Corps of Discovery traversed the Missouri into present-day North Dakota, where the map had ended before their journey. Her husband, Toussaint Charbonneau, and son, Jean Baptiste, both of whom achieved renown of their own, left the expedition with her.
Lewis and Clark and company reached St. Louis on September In the days since their departure, the explorers had traveled more than 8, miles, established friendships with several native nations, collected invaluable botanical and zoological specimens, produced surprisingly accurate maps, and compiled detailed records of the entire expedition. The mountain men, explorers, buffalo hunters, soldiers, pioneers, gamblers, gold seekers, cowboys, outlaws, missionaries, and homesteaders who went west during the next century all followed in the wake of Lewis and Clark.
The nation rejoiced when Lewis and Clark and their men — rumored to be dead or lost — safely returned to civilization. Congress awarded 1,acre land grants to Lewis and Clark and acre grants to each enlisted man, as well as the back pay due to everyone. President Thomas Jefferson, the force behind the expedition, further rewarded the captains by appointing Lewis governor of the Territory of Upper Louisiana and Clark superintendent of Indian affairs.
Clark promptly ordered former expedition member Nathaniel Pryor, now an army ensign, to return Mandan chief Sheheke also called Big White to his home in North Dakota. Pryor and his first wife, Margaret Patton, had six children. As he was forming his company, Pryor naturally looked for men he already knew and trusted. Only 18 years old when he joined the captains, Shannon was the youngest member of the party. His youth sometimes showed: he had a habit of forgetting objects on the trail, and he had twice become separated from the main group.
But Shannon proved to be particularly cool under pressure one night when a wolf attacked a small group of scouts. Gibson had acted as an interpreter on the expedition, probably using sign language, and he was also a first-rate hunter. Pryor, Shannon, and Gibson had traveled to the Pacific Coast and back and had traversed Lakota, Yankton Sioux, and Crow territory without a single violent episode with Indians, but their luck changed for the worse on September 9, , when they encountered the Arikara, who were at war with the Mandan.
In the exchange of fire that followed, Shannon took a ball that broke his leg, and Gibson and another man were also wounded.
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The trapping party accompanying Pryor fared much worse: three men had been killed and seven others badly wounded, one mortally. He was near death by the time the group returned to St. Louis, and a doctor amputated the leg above the knee. He assisted statesman and writer Nicholas Biddle in the publication of the Lewis and Clark journals, served in the Kentucky House of Representatives, and was named U.
In August of , at the age of 51, Shannon fell ill while attending a trial. George Gibson also recovered from his wound and married Maria Reagan. By January , however, the man who had delighted Indians with his fiddle playing fell ill. Fearing imminent death, Gibson made out his will and left everything to his wife. Five years after his encounter with the Arikara, Nathaniel Pryor made another narrow escape. Pryor escaped by crossing the frozen Mississippi River.
Pryor spent the latter part of his life trading with the Osage Indians in the Arkansas Territory, and he had three daughters by his second wife, an Osage woman. He established a reputation for integrity and served as an Indian agent in all but title, although the government offered him little in the way of position or compensation. Meriwether Lewis returned from the expedition as a conquering hero. At 32 he was an eligible bachelor, a prominent landowner, and governor of a huge territory. His prospects seemed limitless. No one could have guessed that three years later he would die a lonely death in the Tennessee wilderness.
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Lewis had commanded the Corps with singular efficiency; his tenure as governor was a different story. After his appointment, he inexplicably lingered in the East for a year. When Lewis finally arrived in St. Louis, his long absence had made the Herculean task of governing the territory virtually impossible. Adding trouble to trouble, Lewis mismanaged his personal finances and fell into debt. Then he neglected to write the promised expedition history, and though he had resolved to marry, the famed explorer failed in courtship.
Louis to book passage on a keelboat. But within days, Lewis was sick, possibly with malaria. He and Pernia stopped miles to the south at New Madrid, where the governor made out his will and bequeathed his property to his mother, Lucy Marks. Changing his plans, Lewis decided to continue overland. The four men rode along the Natchez Trace, an eight-foot-wide, mile trail that ran through the dense woods of Indian territory.
The Trace led them into present Alabama, where they paid a man to ferry them across the swift Tennessee River. Following the winding Trace over streams and through thick forests that blocked out the sun for hours at a time, the four riders entered Tennessee. On October 10, the travelers awoke to find that two packhorses had gotten loose during the night. Neelly remained behind to search for the horses, and Lewis rode on, with the servants following some distance behind. According to Mrs.
Grinder, wife of the absent owner, Lewis asked for spirits but drank little. Then he sat down outside and lit his pipe. Grinder prepared a bed for Lewis in one of the cabins, but he preferred to sleep on the floor with bearskins and a buffalo robe. The landlady and her children then went to their cabin and the two servants to a barn yards away.
Late into the night, Mrs.
Grinder heard Lewis in the other cabin pacing and talking to himself. Then she heard a pistol shot and something falling heavily to the floor. The pistol fired a second time. Then Mrs. Grinder heard Lewis at her door. As Lewis suffered and groped in the dark for a drink of water, Mrs. Grinder was afraid to do anything but wait. At dawn, she sent her children to get the servants. He uncovered his side, and showed them where the bullet had entered; a piece of his forehead was blown off, and had exposed the brains, without having bled much. After another hour, just as the sun was rising above the trees, the brilliant but moody Lewis breathed his last.
Almost two centuries later, historians still debate whether Lewis killed himself or was murdered. Colter had wintered in the wild and was returning to St. Right on the spot, Lisa offered Colter a job. Although he had a land grant and back pay waiting for him in St. Louis, Colter accepted the offer and turned back, on his way to one of the most incredible adventures in the history of the West.
Here the men spent the winter of , but not Colter. This man, with a pack of thirty pounds weight, his gun and some ammunition, went upwards of five hundred miles to the Crow nation; gave them information, and proceeded from them to several other tribes. The region, actually east of present Yellowstone Park, remained largely unexplored for another 60 years. The Crow later befriended Colter, and he fought with them when a battle broke out between Crow and Flathead against 1, Blackfeet.
In the fall of , he and fellow expedition veteran John Potts teamed up to trap in western Montana.
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They were working the Jefferson River near present Three Forks, when several hundred Blackfeet warriors appeared on the riverbank. The chiefs ordered Colter and Potts ashore; Colter complied and was immediately stripped and disarmed. Potts remained in his canoe in midstream. An Indian fired a shot. I will kill at least one of them. The next instant, year-old Potts was riddled with bullets. Colter was horrified and expected to be slowly tortured to death.
But after the chiefs conferred, one of them motioned Colter toward the prairie. But when he had gone 80 or 90 yards, he realized this was sport of a different kind — a race to the death. Perhaps his previous encounter with the Blackfeet had made him respected as well as hated.
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Colter set off running, pursued by warriors armed with spears. The Madison River was five miles away, and the barefoot Colter galloped over rocks and cactus, trying to reach it and escape. He was halfway to the Madison when blood began gushing from his nose. He ran on, soon realizing that one warrior, a blanket wrapped around his shoulders, was far ahead of the others. Colter turned to face him, and the young brave tripped as he lunged at him with the spear.
Colter grabbed the spear and broke off the head as the Indian fell. He killed the brave with one blow, grabbed the blanket, and bolted for the Madison. As he reached the water, Colter disappeared in the thick willows and then dove under a beaver dam. He came up inside the dam and soon heard the Blackfeet searching for him, even tromping overhead.
But they did not find him and at nightfall Colter made his escape. He died in while serving in the army. Colter was 37 and left a wife, Sally, and a son and daughter. Brothers Joseph and Reubin Field were two of the best hunters on the expedition.
Lewis And Clark Expedition
The most dangerous scene had been a violent encounter between Indians and four members of the expedition — Lewis, George Drouillard, and the Field brothers. The four men were exploring northwestern Montana on the homeward portion of the journey when they met a small band of teenage Piegan Blackfeet. Masking his apprehension, Lewis smoked a pipe with the young men, and Drouillard interpreted in sign language. The two groups even camped together. Lewis and the others rushed back to the camp and saddled their horses before a much larger band of Blackfeet could give chase.
But they knew they were safe when they reached the Missouri River and rejoined several of their fellow explorers. After the return to St. Louis, the Field brothers went back to their home in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Joseph died less than a year later at the age of Other than Charles Floyd, who died of apparent appendicitis three months after the journey began, Joseph was the first expedition veteran to die. The exact cause of death is unknown, but in a list of expedition members Clark compiled sometime between and , he said Joseph had been killed. Joseph left no children.
Reubin married Mary Myrtle and farmed in Kentucky for the next 15 years, though little is known of his life. He was about 52 when he died in ; he and Mary left no heirs. Like Joseph Field, John Shields was a valuable member of the company who died not long after the expedition ended. Born in , Shields was the oldest member in the original group of volunteers.
He was an expert blacksmith and gunsmith and served his fellows well. Suggesting a steam bath, Shields dug a 3-foot by 4-foot hole and then built a fire to heat the ground and exposed rocks. After scooping out the embers, the men helped Bratton into the hole, where he created steam by pouring water on the hot stones and earth. Shields instructed others to hold blanket-draped willows overhead to retain the heat.
After a while, the men helped Bratton out, and he plunged into cold water. Then more steam, followed by another cold plunge, followed by 45 additional minutes of steam treatment. Shields also administered large amounts of mint tea. The next day Bratton was cured. Shields had married Nancy White in the s; the couple had one daughter. Shields died at the age of 40, in He is buried near Corydon, Indiana.
The captains hired Lepage to replace John Newman, who had been expelled from the party. Lepage knew the region well and was possibly the first white man to ascend the Little Missouri River, probably going as far as Montana or Wyoming. He told Clark he had spent 45 days descending the virtually unnavigable river. After the expedition members returned to St.
Louis, Lepage signed to trap with Manuel Lisa, and he may have been on a fur-trading venture in the West when Meriwether Lewis arrived in St.
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One of her godparents is the Queen's cousin, the Duke of Kent. Lady Jane and Lord Robert Fellowes. Lady Jane Fellowes, 61, is Diana's elder sister. The couple have three children and four grandchildren. Laura Fellowes. L aura, 37, is very close to William and Harry and is one of Princess Charlotte's godparents. She married equity analyst Nick Pettman in in Snettisham, west Norfolk, where her parents live in an old rectory. William and Kate were both guests. Laura writes fiction under the name Mave Fellowes — her nickname is Mavis — and has sons. Alexander — known as Beetle to friends — is a year-old investment banker.
Prince Harry attended the wedding. Alexander and Alexandra have two children, Robert, three, named after his grandfather, and month-old Rose. Eleanor Fellowes, 32, keeps a relatively low profile and is rarely seen at public events. She is believed to work as a probation officer and has published articles on issues relating to her profession.
The Spencers. Charles Spencer and Karen Gordon. Charles, 53, the 9th Earl Spencer, is the most high profile of Princess Diana's siblings. In his eulogy at Diana's funeral, the journalist and broadcaster criticised the Royal Family and the Press on their treatment of his sister. The couple, who divorced in , had three daughters and a son. Father-of-seven: Earl Spencer with wife Karen, with whom he has a daughter, five.
The couple had two children together, Edmund and Caroline. They divorced in Spencer married his current wife, Canadian-born philanthropist Karen Gordon, in June at the family seat of Althorp House. They have one child together, Lady Charlotte Diana Spencer, named after his sister.
The couple reside at the Spencer ancestral seat, Althorp House, which he inherited on his father's death in High-profile: Lady Kitty, pictured at an event last week, is an established fashion model. The socialite, who is signed with Kate Moss's former modelling agency Storm, is a regular fixture at the world's hottest parties and is sure to cause a stir at the Royal Wedding.
She is regarded as one of the most eligible young women on London's social scene, having split from her property tycoon boyfriend at the start of the summer. Lady Kitty grew up in South Africa and is now based in Fulham. Lady Eliza and Lady Amelia Spencer. Lookalikes: Ladies Amelia and Eliza, 25, with their elder sister Kitty, 27, at the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge in All three are expected to attend.
Twins Lady Eliza and Lady Amelia, 25, share their elder sister's good looks but keep a much lower profile. Like their sister, the twins were raised in South Africa and attended university in Cape Town. She was cleared of all charges. Louis, 24, is the fourth child and eldest son of Earl Spencer and will therefore inherit his father's estates and title ahead of his elder sisters.
Heir: Louis Spencer, 24, pictured in , will inherit his father's estates and title. Edmund and Caroline Spencer. The Vanity Fair report makes no mention of Edmund and Caroline Spencer, Charles' children from his second marriage, receiving an invite to the royal wedding. As Edmund, 14, and Caroline, 12, are still young, they perhaps wouldn't attend the late-night after-party.
Lady Charlotte Spencer. Like her half-siblings Edmund and Caroline, Lady Charlotte is not named in the Vanity Fair report and would be unlikely to receive a late-night party invite because of her age. Here come the Spencers! Share this article Share. Who's who in the Spencer clan? The couple have three children and two grandchildren. Share or comment on this article: Prince Harry is inviting Diana's entire Spencer family to his wedding e-mail 2. More top stories. Bing Site Web Enter search term: Search.